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The name of the town in Greek is Ναύπλιο or in Ancient Greek Ναύπλιο/Ανάπλι (adding omega/nu, thus the transliteration "Nafplion"). As is the case with many Greek names, there is more than one possible Latin transliteration. Currently, the most commonly used English spelling is "Nafplion" (or sometimes "Nafplio" like the Modern Greek way of saying it).

Many sources, especially those dealing with the ancient city, refer to it by its Latin name of Nauplion.[citation needed] In other languages it is known variously as Nauplia, Navplion, Nauplio, Nafplion and Anapli; these names would have been current in English during the periods of Venetian and Ottoman domination. In Italian, Nafplion is known as Napoli di Romania, the last two words referring to the ancient name ("Romania") formerly used to define those territories occupied by the Byzantine Empire, and serving to distinguish the town from the other Napoli (i.e. Naples) in Italy.

Nafplion is situated on the Argolic Gulf in the northeast Peloponnese. Most of the old town is on a peninsula jutting into the gulf; this peninsula forms a naturally protected bay that is enhanced by the addition of man-made moles. Originally almost isolated by marshes, deliberate landfill projects, primarily since the 1970s, have nearly doubled the land area of the city.

The area surrounding Nafplion has been inhabited since ancient times though little sign of this remains within the town. The town has been a stronghold at several times in history.

The Akronafplia has walls dating from pre-classical times. Subsequently, Byzantines, Franks, Venetians, and Ottomans added to the fortifications. Nafplion was taken in 1212 by the French crusaders of the Principality of Achaea, then in 1388 was sold to the Venetians During the subsequent 150 years, the lower city was expanded and fortified, and new fortifications added to Akronauplia. The city was surrendered to the Ottomans in 1540. At that period, Nafplion looked very much like the 16th century image shown below to the right.

The Venetians retook Nafplion in 1685, and strengthened the city by building the castle of Palamidi, which was in fact the last major construction of the Venetian empire overseas. However, only 80 soldiers were assigned to defend the city and it was easily retaken by the Ottomans in 1715.

During the Greek War of Independence, Nafplion was a major Ottoman stronghold and was besieged for a year by Theodoros Kolokotronis. Akronauplia, and then Palamidi, finally surrendered because of starvation. After its capture, because of its strong fortifications, it became the seat of the provisional governments of Greece, and Kapodistrias made it the official capital of Greece in 1829. After his assassination there in 1831 a period of anarchy followed, until the arrival of King Otto and the establishment of the new Kingdom of Greece. Nafplion remained the capital of the kingdom until 1834, when King Otto decided to move the capital to Athens.

Tourism emerged slowly in the 1960s, but not to the same degree as around other ares of Greece; nevertheless, it tends to attact a number of tourists from Germany and the Scandinavian countries in particular. Nafplion enjoys a very sunny and mild climate, even by Greek standards, and as a consequence has become a popular day- or weekend road trip destination for Athenians in wintertime.

Nafplion is a port, with fishing and transport ongoing, although the primary source of local employment currently is tourism, with two beaches on the other side of the peninsula from the main body of the town and a large amount of local accommodation. There is now a railway station with daily trains from/to Athens (OSE).

Since 2003, the University of Peloponnese has incorporated a new faculty, the School of Fine Arts. In 2007, a single department exists ; the Department of Theatre, working on four pathways:

The building of the National Bank of Greece is probably the only building in the world built in the Mycenaean Revival architectural style.

The walk inside the ancient town, make you to feel the need to enjoy with her touching the historical past inside her monuments. You see the home inhabitants, tiger with quietly and you believe that there are poetries, which are not the fantasy of a poet but it is painting.
The walk inside and to the beach, with the beautiful beaches, taverns and restaurants with view the illuminated Bourtzi, is really initiation.

Important are the churches of Nafpliou, like Agiou Spiridona that was building in the begging of 18th century and ahead of it was murdered Ioannis Kapodistrias. The church of Agiou Georgiou (patron saint) was building in 16th century with internal copy the Last Supper of Leonardo Da Vicci.

A special architecture work - art is the Catholic Church of Metamorfosi, which in the Venetian period become mosque and to the years of King Othonos was giving to the Catholics of Nafpliou as offer. For your accommodation there are a lot of hotels to the region. You can reach to Nafplio by road from Athens. Also you can use the train.

The places that are worthy to visit are a lot. Around the Square of Fundamental you can enjoy the beautiful neoclassical buildings of the last century. Between of them is located the Home of vicegerent Mauer, the Ministry of Soldier, the first greek high school, the Was Museum etc.

The archaeological Museum that is located in a Venetian Building of 1713 and there are Neolithic vessel, wall painting from Mycenae and Tirintha. Also are exposed findings of rare worth of Mycenaean period, from earthen masks and shields until a lot of stoned vessels, small objects of daily used from the historic times as well as oblation adorable to the gods.

The Folklore Museum that is one of the most important in Greece, it consists national clothes of the region, jewels from brass and silver, gemstones and works art.

A lot are the festivals that take place in Nafplio. The biggest cultural fact of the town believed that is the Festival of Nafpliou, which is organized every summer under the aegis of municipality.

Also there and many Musical nights to the most beautiful places of the town, where take part international orchestra and soloists. Every two years celebrates here and to the rest of Greece the Nautical Week.

The celebrating festivals are beginning the last Sunday of June and are finishing the first Sunday of July with highlight the Venetian night and the shooting of fireworks.

Nafplio as a traditional modern live town, you can not to grace and one of the most mainly enjoying of the visitors, the food. So the offer is big.

A lot of graphical taverns and restaurants there are to the heart of the town. Greek traditional recipes and international cuisine are covered with their range yours needs to the taste as well as to the environment.

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